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Guest Lecture - Maggie Werner-Washburne

Sarah Kintner

Summary of Lecture and Visualization

Why what you hear and see isn't always all there is and maybe never is.

The history of Biology, Biochemistry, Genetics and Geonomics

Cell Biology - Visualization - What do I see?
a. Microscope - light and electron microscope
b. Centrifuge - separate

Biochemistry - WWII - fallout from the bomb
a. Radionucleotides
b. Gel electropheresis
c. Centrifugation
d. Protein sequencing

Genetics - What genes are for X? Looking for phenotype.
a. Molecular biology - genetic sequencing
b. Restriction enzymes - looking for size, gene deletion, mixed with genetics

Genomic - What do they all do?
a. Where is everything
b. How much is there?

Mitochondrial Respiration

5 protein complexes. When growing a specific organism was grown on growth plates the scientists found petits and then found mitochondrial genetics in the petit.

Pictures, TEM pictures and SEMs pictures do not really show the mitochondria the way they are. OMIN Disease database for man. Online Medelin Inherited In Man - disease genes database.

Mitochondrial complex I - 46 subunits

Apoptosis is controlled by the release of cytochrome "c" when it is released into the host cell and causes programmed cell death.

Gibbs Free Energy

Gibbs free energy is often assumed to occur at the standard temperature and pressure in the formula and a standard output for ATP energy release is −7.3 kcal/mol but for cell biology is depends upon the concentration of the reagents and the products.

Three questions:

  1. What is the mechanism that actually pulls the H+ into the vacuole if the outer layer of the Christae cells is positively charged?
  2. Does the mitochondria empty the vacuole of H+ ions and then release the vacuole back to the Christae membrane?
  3. How many H+ vacuoles will a mitochondria produce in the Christae at any one time and what stressors cause massive amounts to be produced?

Future work:

  1. Examine what causes priorities in the mitochondria for energy production and how the ATP is increased and the proportion to the H+ ions and H+ vacuoles.
  2. Observe the host cellular environment or state when the mitochondria release cytochrome "c" into the external host cell cyotoplasm and observe how the mitochondria shutdown based upon reacting the death of the host cell.
  3. Since the ability to observe the actual proteins put through the nuclear pore has not been successfully done, instead watch how the nuclear port transports different protein with different sizes, charges and conformation. Those proteins that pass readily should indicated that the nuclear pore has a mechanism to transmit them and those that do not have cause some sort of interference and this way a picture from the "ins" and those that get "out" can paint a functional picture of the nuclear pore.